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Infection with hepatitis G virus (HGV) or GB virus-C (GBV-C) is widely distributed in human populations. Viruses related to GBV-C/HGV have been recovered from several New World primate species, including tamarins, owl monkeys and marmosets. To understand more about the relationship between GB viruses and their hosts, we used primers from the 5' non-coding (5'NC), non-structural 3 (NS3) and NS5 regions in nested polymerase chain reactions to screen for related viruses infecting non-captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, troglodytes and verus subspecies). Sequences from the 5'NCR and NS5 regions were amplified from samples taken from 3 of 39 chimpanzees, and from one chimpanzee in the NS3 region. Sequence comparisons of each region revealed that the GB virus infecting chimpanzees was distinct from both GBV-C/HGV and from any of the known GBV-A sequences, but was more closely related to human viruses. GB viruses recovered from different chimpanzees were more diverse than variants of GBV-C/HGV found in humans, with 25% sequence divergence in the 5'NCR and 20% (9.5% amino acid) sequence divergence in NS5 between variants recovered from the troglodytes and verus subspecies, compared with 7.4% and 10.4% (1.9% amino acid) divergence amongst GBV-C/HGV variants infecting humans. Finding GBV-C/HGV-related viruses in an Old World monkey species suggests that GB-like viruses may be widely distributed in simians, and suggests a close evolutionary relationship with their natural hosts.

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BACKGROUND: A newly discovered DNA virus, transfusion-transmitted virus (TTV), has been implicated as a cause of post-transfusion hepatitis. We investigated the frequency of TTV viraemia in UK blood donors, and the extent to which TTV contaminates blood products such as factor VIII and IX clotting factors. We also investigated the possible aetiological role of TTV in cryptogenic fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). METHODS: We extracted DNA from plasma of blood donors and patients with FHF, and from blood products (factor VIII and IX clotting-factor concentrates, immunoglobulin preparations). We detected TTV by PCR using primers from a conserved region in the TTV genome. FINDINGS: TTV viraemia was detected in 19 (1.9%) of 1000 non-remunerated regular blood donors. Infection occurred more frequently in older donors (mean age 53 years), compared with the age prolife of donors infected with hepatitis C virus and other parenterally-transmitted viruses. TTV contamination was found in ten (56%) of 18 batches of factor VIII and IX concentrate manufactured from such non-remunerated donors, and in seven (44%) of 16 batches of commercially available products. Whereas solvent or detergent treatment had little effect on the detection of TTV in factor VIII and IX by PCR, this virucidal step seemed to inactivate TTV infectivity. TTV infection was detected in four (19%) of 21 patients with FHF; in three cases, infection was detected at the onset of disease and could thus not be excluded from its aetiology. INTERPRETATION: TTV viraemia is frequent in the blood-donor population, and transmission of TTV through transfusion of blood components may have occurred extensively. Clinical assessment of infected donors and recipients of blood and blood products, and assessment of TTV's aetiological role in hepatic and extra-hepatic disease, are urgently needed.

Hughes ES , Bell JE , Simmonds P . 1997. Investigation of population diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in vivo by nucleotide sequencing and length polymorphism analysis of the V1/V2 hypervariable region of env. J Gen Virol , 78 ( Pt 11) (11), pp. 2871-2882. | PLDM by Palladium Womens Rita JKT Open Toe Sandals Free Shipping Fake m0vSjw8MlD
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In this study we have analysed variability in the V1 and V2 regions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proviral sequences amplified from lymphoid tissue, brain and other non-lymphoid tissue collected at autopsy from three HIV-1-infected individuals with giant cell encephalitis. We found no evidence for any tissue-specific grouping of variants in the V1/V2 regions, in contrast to previous comparisons of sequences in the V3 region, but consistent with the existence of evolutionarily distinct lineages previously observed in these study subjects by sequence comparisons of the p17gag gene. Examination of inferred amino acid sequences from V1 and V2 revealed no correlations between tissue origin with overall charge, length or number of glycosylation sites. Length polymorphism analysis is a rapid method to compare whole populations of HIV-1 variants within a sample, and provides information on the length and diversity of the V1 and V2 hypervariable regions. Based upon a comparison of 42 individuals with CD4 counts ranging from 802 to < 1 at time of death, we found no evidence for changes in the length of V2 with development of AIDS. Using the number of length variants in the V1 and V2 hypervariable region as a marker of the overall degree of variability within HIV populations, we found no evidence for an increase or a decrease in diversity between those with and without AIDS defining illness.

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Haydon GH , Jarvis LM , Blair CS , Simmonds P , Harrison DJ , Hayes PC . 1997. Clinicopathological characteristics of subpopulations serum RT-PCR negative and serum RT-PCR positive for hepatitis C virus GUT , 41 pp. A126-A127.
Haydon GH , Jarvis LM , Blair CS , Simmonds P , Harrison DJ , Hayes PC . 1997. Clinicopathological characteristics of subpopulations serum RT-PCR negative and serum RT-PCR positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA. HEPATOLOGY , 26 (4), pp. 51-51.
Bouali MR , Khediri MF , Hmida J , Hila A , Davidson F , Simmonds P . 1997. Genotypes of hepatitis C virus: A new subtype 4. HEPATOLOGY , 26 (4), pp. 332-332.
Willson RA , Yap PL , Fischer SH , Ochs HD , Simmonds P . 1997. Long-term (7 yrs) interferon alfa maintenance therapy, with biochemical and virologic response, failed to prevent progression of chronic hepatitis C infection acquired through contaminated intravenous gamma globulin in a patient with common variable immune deficiency HEPATOLOGY , 26 (4), pp. 1181-1181.

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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is transmitted through infected blood and blood products, but evidence of other routes of transmission is less clearly understood. In a study designed to examine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission, the prevalence of HCV has also been measured. Sixty-one couples were analysed, 30 in which partners were at risk through sexual contact alone, of whom 12 (40%) became infected with HIV and none with HCV. Thirty-one partners were exposed sexually and additionally through intravenous drug use. Of these, 16 (52%) became infected with HIV and 25 (80%) contracted HCV infection. These findings support the evidence of others that HCV is only rarely transmitted by sexual intercourse in heterosexual relationships and that HIV is not a co-factor for HCV transmission.

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To investigate which subsets of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are susceptible to infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis G virus (HGV) or GB virus C (GBV-C), a PCR-based assay using tagged primers in the core region (HCV) and NS3 region (HGV/GBV-C) for the specific detection of negative strand (replicating) viral RNA sequences was developed. In liver biopsy samples both positive and negative strands of HCV RNA were detected, at levels ranging from 3 to 11 x 10(6) RNA copies per 10(6) cells and 3.7-4.2 x 10(3) copies per 10(6) cells respectively, while lower frequencies of positive strands of GBV-C/HGV RNA were detected (from 13 biopsies, the highest frequency was 7.3 x 10(3) per 10(6) cells). In no samples were negative RNA strands detected. To investigate extra-hepatic replication of HCV and GBV-C/HGV, CD4+, CD8+ and B lymphocytes, monocytes and putative dendritic cell populations were separated from PBMCs from ten study subjects. Detection of positive strand HCV RNA was largely confined to B lymphocytes (at levels of up to 5 x 10(3) copies per 10(6) cells), while detection of negative strands was confined to a single subset (dendritic cells) of one of the study individuals. Similarly, GBV-C/HGV was detected at low levels in only twelve of twenty PBMC samples, while negative strands were uniformly absent. The low levels of HCV and GBV-C/HGV RNA in PBMCs suggest that these cells are at most a minor reservoir for virus replication. The absence of detectable replication of GBV-C/HGV suggests that the actual site of GBV-C/HGV replication remains to be discovered.

Citation information in Europe Pubmed Central

BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of a single assessment of circulating hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA and its relation to the level of intrahepatic HCV RNA remains unclear. AIMS: To investigate the relation between intrahepatic HCV levels and clinicopathological characteristics of chronic HCV infection. PATIENTS: Ninety eight consecutive patients with chronic HCV infection were studied; none had received alpha interferon therapy. Of these, 12 patients were repeatedly negative for HCV RNA in serum by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). METHODS: After diagnostic laparoscopy and liver biopsy, semiquantitative analysis of intrahepatic HCV RNA levels was carried out by limiting dilution of HCV cDNA. HCV genotypes were assessed in 96 patients by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of HCV cDNA. RESULTS: Ten out of 12 patients who were RT-PCR negative for HCV RNA in serum were RT-PCR positive in liver; however, this group had a significantly lower intrahepatic HCV level and serum aminotransferase level than the remaining 86 patients. Histological severity (cirrhosis: n = 10); histological activity index; HCV genotype (genotype 1: n = 41; genotype 2: n = 12; genotype 3: n = 36; genotype 4: n = 7); mode of infection (intravenous drug abuse: n = 58; post-transfusion: n = 10; haemophiliac: n = 4; sporadic: n = 26) and alcohol abuse did not affect the intrahepatic virus level. There was no correlation between patient age, duration of infection, and intrahepatic HCV level. CONCLUSIONS: Intrahepatic virus levels were not determined by host factors (age of patient, mode or duration of infection) or by virus factors (HCV genotype). Repeatedly negative RT-PCR for HCV RNA in serum does not indicate absence of HCV from the liver.

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